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    For image synthesis built-in test objects like disk (diffraction point), radial mira or rectangular mira are supplied. Additionally, the user may use images in standard bitmap format (*.bmp). Image synthesis is done by PSF (point spread function) for a matrix of points on the object plane. The following samples of image analysis were generated with a simple doublet system (Fig. 4-1). Fig. 4-2a shows a picture of the "Schwebebahn" (overhead suspension railway train in Wuppertal, Germany), used as an object. The resulting image (Fig. 4-2) is somewhat blurred due to imperfections of the lens. It is calculated assuming an ideal detector like a superfine grained photographic plate.

Fig. 4-1: Simple doublet system used for image synthesis examples

Fig. 4-2a: Bitmap used as object for image synthesis Fig. 4-2b: Synthesized image of object in fig 4-2a using doublet system (Fig 4-1)

The electro-optical features of detectors can be taken into account. Several single element, multi-element detectors and mechanical scanners may be used. Fig. 4-3a shows a map of a matrix area detector, like a CCD. For demonstration purposes the dimensions are rather unusual. The resulting image (fig. 4-3b) is quite pixelized due to the coarse structure of the array.

Fig. 4-3a: Map of matrix detector (3 mm * 3 mm), 50 * 50 elements, element size 0.06 * 0.06, center to center distance 0.06 * 0.06 Fig. 4-3b: Synthesized image (3 mm * 3 mm) with matrix detector (Fig. 4-3a)

The margins (trenches) between the elements of matrix arrays can be taken into account. While in fig 4-3 the elements are seamlessly arranged (element size = center to center distance), in fig 4-4 a more realistic array with margins is shown. The resulting image is rather dark due to the black margins between the elements.

Fig. 4-4a: Map of matrix detector (3 mm * 3 mm), 79 * 79 elements, element size 0.03 * 0.03, center to center distance 0.038 * 0.038 Fig. 4-4b: Synthesized image (3 mm * 3 mm) with matrix detector (Fig. 4-4a)

Single and double line arrays (fig. 4.5) are used in fax machines and desktop scanners for PC`s, which are scanned in one dimension over the images. The black stripes are caused by the margins of the elements (s. above).

Fig. 4-5a: Map of single line detector (3 mm long), 55 elements, element size 0.05 * 0.05, center to center distance 0.055 Fig. 4-5b: Map of double line detector (3 mm long), 2 * 28 elements, element size 0.05, center to center distance 0.110 (element to element in one line) Fig. 4-5c: Synthesized image with single line detector (Fig. 4-5a) scanned horizontally over the image plane

Fig 4-6: Synthesized image with rectangular single element detector (0.08 * 0.08) scanned horizontally and vertically over the image plane
Figure 4-6 shows the image obtained with a rectangular single element detector which is scanned seamlessly over the image plane. The strong blur is caused by the rather big element size in relation to the image size.

Webmaster`s note: Soon (ehem, in the next weeks ;-) we will add examples of mechanical scanners taking into account real movement with relaxation of moving element (mirror). Please come in again.

More samples?
The trial version of VOB Pro with Micro Optics plug-in contains hundreds of samples covering nearly any application of optical design programs. Use these samples as starting points for own designs.

See the Feature Table for a summary of features supported in each edition.

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